A Temporal Data-Driven Player Model for Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment


  • Alexander Zook Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Mark Riedl Georgia Institute of Technology




Computer Games, Player Modeling, Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment


Many computer games of all genres pit the player against a succession of increasingly difficult challenges such as combat with computer-controlled enemies and puzzles. Part of the fun of computer games is to master the skills necessary to complete the game. Challenge tailoring is the problem of matching the difficulty of skill-based events over the course of a game to a specific player's abilities. We present a tensor factorization approach to predicting player performance in skill-based computer games. Our tensor factorization approach is data-driven and can predict changes in players' skill mastery over time, allowing more accurate tailoring of challenges. We demonstrate the efficacy and scalability of tensor factorization models through an empirical study of human players in a simple role-playing combat game. We further find a significant correlation between these performance ratings and player subjective experiences of difficulty and discuss ways our model can be used to optimize player enjoyment.




How to Cite

Zook, A., & Riedl, M. (2021). A Temporal Data-Driven Player Model for Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, 8(1), 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1609/aiide.v8i1.12504