Partially Observable Online Contingent Planning Using Landmark Heuristics


  • Shlomi Maliah Ben Gurion University
  • Ronen Brafman Ben Gurion University
  • Erez Karpas Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Guy Shani Ben Gurion University



Contingent planning, Replanning, Landmarks, Partial observability


In contingent planning problems, agents have partial information about their state anduse sensing actions to learn the value of some variables.When sensing and actuation are separated, plans for such problems can often be viewed as a tree of sensing actions, separated by conformant plans consisting of non-sensing actions that enable the execution of the next sensing action. This leads us to propose a heuristic, online method for contingent planning which focuses on identifying thenext useful sensing action. The key part of our planner is a novel landmarks-based heuristic for selecting the next sensing action, together with a projection method that uses classical planning to solve the intermediate conformant planning problems.This allows our planner to operate without an explicit model of belief space or the use of existing translation techniques,both of which can require exponential space. The resulting Heuristic Contingent Planner (HCP) solves many more problems than state-of-the-art, translation-based online contingent planners, and in most cases much faster.




How to Cite

Maliah, S., Brafman, R., Karpas, E., & Shani, G. (2014). Partially Observable Online Contingent Planning Using Landmark Heuristics. Proceedings of the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling, 24(1), 163-171.