Glaive: A State-Space Narrative Planner Supporting Intentionality and Conflict


  • Stephen Ware University of New Orleans
  • R. Michael Young North Carolina State University


glaive, narrative, planning, intentionality, conflict, causality


Glaive is a state-space planner based on Hoffmann and Nebel's Fast-Forward which solves the narrative planning problem defined by Riedl and Young — to construct a plan which achieves the author's goals out of steps which are clearly motivated and goal-oriented toward individual character goals. Glaive reasons about how characters cooperate and conflict based on causal structures and possible worlds. By leveraging the unique constraints of narrative planning, Glaive reduces its branching factor and calculates a more accurate heuristic. We evaluate it on 8 narrative planning problems and demonstrate that it can solve certain non-trivial problems in under 1 second.




How to Cite

Ware, S., & Young, R. M. (2021). Glaive: A State-Space Narrative Planner Supporting Intentionality and Conflict. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, 10(1), 80-86. Retrieved from