On Case Base Formation in Real-Time Heuristic Search
Keywords:real-time heuristic search, artificial intelligence, video-game pathfinding
Real-time heuristic search algorithms obey a constant limit on planning time per move. Agents using these algorithms can execute each move as it is computed, suggesting a strong potential for application to real-time video-game AI. Recently, a breakthrough in real-time heuristic search performance was achieved through the use of case-based reasoning. In this framework, the agent optimally solves a set of problems and stores their solutions in a case base. Then, given any new problem, it seeks a similar case in the case base and uses its solution as an aid to solve the problem at hand. A number of ad hoc approaches to the case base formation problem have been proposed and empirically shown to perform well. In this paper, we investigate a theoretically driven approach to solving the problem. We mathematically relate properties of a case base to the suboptimality of the solutions it produces and subsequently develop an algorithm that addresses these properties directly. An empirical evaluation shows our new algorithm outperforms the existing state of the art on contemporary video-game pathfinding benchmarks.