Generate Adjective Sentiment Dictionary for Social Media Sentiment Analysis Using Constrained Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
Although sentiment analysis has attracted a lot of research, little work has been done on social media data compared to product and movie reviews. This is due to the low accuracy that results from the more informal writing seen in social media data. Currently, most of sentiment analysis tools on social media choose the lexicon-based approach instead of the machine learning approach because the latter requires the huge challenge of obtaining enough human-labeled training data for extremely large-scale and diverse social opinion data. The lexicon-based approach requires a sentiment dictionary to determine opinion polarity. This dictionary can also provide useful features for any supervised learning method of the machine learning approach. However, many benchmark sentiment dictionaries do not cover the many informal and spoken words used in social media. In addition, they are not able to update frequently to include newly generated words online. In this paper, we present an automatic sentiment dictionary generation method, called Constrained Symmetric Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (CSNMF) algorithm, to assign polarity scores to each word in the dictionary, on a large social media corpus — digg.com. Moreover, we will demonstrate our study of Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) on social media word polarity, using both the human-labeled dictionaries from AMT and the General Inquirer Lexicon to compare our generated dictionary with. In our experiment, we show that combining links from both WordNet and the corpus to generate sentiment dictionaries does outperform using only one of them, and the words with higher sentiment scores yield better precision. Finally, we conducted a lexicon-based sentiment analysis on human-labeled social comments using our generated sentiment dictionary to show the effectiveness of our method.