On the Computational Complexity of Stackelberg Planning and Meta-Operator Verification


  • Gregor Behnke ILLC, University of Amsterdam
  • Marcel Steinmetz LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse




Stackelberg planning is a recently introduced single-turn two-player adversarial planning model, where two players are acting in a joint classical planning task, the objective of the first player being hampering the second player from achieving its goal. This places the Stackelberg planning problem somewhere between classical planning and general combinatorial two-player games. But, where exactly? All investigations of Stackelberg planning so far focused on practical aspects. We close this gap by conducting the first theoretical complexity analysis of Stackelberg planning. We show that in general Stackelberg planning is actually no harder than classical planning. Under a polynomial plan-length restriction, however, Stackelberg planning is a level higher up in the polynomial complexity hierarchy, suggesting that compilations into classical planning come with a worst-case exponential plan-length increase. In attempts to identify tractable fragments, we further study its complexity under various planning task restrictions, showing that Stackelberg planning remains intractable where classical planning is not. We finally inspect the complexity of meta-operator verification, a problem that has been recently connected to Stackelberg planning.




How to Cite

Behnke, G., & Steinmetz, M. (2024). On the Computational Complexity of Stackelberg Planning and Meta-Operator Verification. Proceedings of the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling, 34(1), 20-24. https://doi.org/10.1609/icaps.v34i1.31456