Safety Shielding under Delayed Observation


  • Filip Cano Córdoba Graz University of Technology
  • Alexander Palmisano Graz University of Technology
  • Martin Fränzle Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
  • Roderick Bloem Graz University of Technology
  • Bettina Könighofer Graz University of Technology



Partially observable and unobservable domains, Applications and case studies of plannin and scheduling techniques, Uncertainty and stochasticity in planning and scheduling


Agents operating in physical environments need to be able to handle delays in the input and output signals since neither data transmission nor sensing or actuating the environment are instantaneous. Shields are correct-by-construction runtime enforcers that guarantee safe execution by correcting any action that may cause a violation of a formal safety specification. Besides providing safety guarantees, shields should interfere minimally with the agent. Therefore, shields should pick the safe corrective actions in such a way that future interferences are most likely minimized. Current shielding approaches do not consider possible delays in the input signals in their safety analyses. In this paper, we address this issue. We propose synthesis algorithms to compute delay-resilient shields that guarantee safety under worst-case assumptions on the delays of the input signals. We also introduce novel heuristics for deciding between multiple corrective actions, designed to minimize future shield interferences caused by delays. As a further contribution, we present the first integration of shields in a realistic driving simulator. We implemented our delayed shields in the driving simulator Carla. We shield potentially unsafe autonomous driving agents in different safety-critical scenarios and show the effect of delays on the safety analysis.




How to Cite

Cano Córdoba, F., Palmisano, A., Fränzle, M., Bloem, R., & Könighofer, B. (2023). Safety Shielding under Delayed Observation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling, 33(1), 80-85.