Online Algorithms for POMDPs with Continuous State, Action, and Observation Spaces
Keywords:POMDPs, Monte Carlo Tree Search, Particle Filters
Online solvers for partially observable Markov decision processes have been applied to problems with large discrete state spaces, but continuous state, action, and observation spaces remain a challenge. This paper begins by investigating double progressive widening (DPW) as a solution to this challenge. However, we prove that this modification alone is not sufficient because the belief representations in the search tree collapse to a single particle causing the algorithm to converge to a policy that is suboptimal regardless of the computation time. This paper proposes and evaluates two new algorithms, POMCPOW and PFT-DPW, that overcome this deficiency by using weighted particle filtering. Simulation results show that these modifications allow the algorithms to be successful where previous approaches fail.