EFP and PG-EFP: Epistemic Forward Search Planners in Multi-Agent Domains


  • Tiep Le New Mexico State University
  • Francesco Fabiano New Mexico State University
  • Tran Son New Mexico State University
  • Enrico Pontelli New Mexico State University




Epistemic Planning, Epistemic Planning Graph, Epistemic Forward Planner


This paper presents two prototypical epistemic forward planners, called EFP and PG-EFP, for generating plans in multi-agent environments. These planners differ from recently developed epistemic planners in that they can deal with unlimited nested beliefs, common knowledge, and capable of generating plans with both knowledge and belief goals. EFP is simply a breadth first search planner while PG-EFP is a heuristic search based system. To generate heuristics in PG-EFP, the paper introduces the notion of an epistemic planning graph. The paper includes an evaluation of the planners using benchmarks collected from the literature and discusses the issues that affect their scalability and efficiency, thus identifies potentially directions for future work. It also includes experimental evaluation that proves the usefulness of epistemic planning graphs.




How to Cite

Le, T., Fabiano, F., Son, T., & Pontelli, E. (2018). EFP and PG-EFP: Epistemic Forward Search Planners in Multi-Agent Domains. Proceedings of the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling, 28(1), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.1609/icaps.v28i1.13881