EFP and PG-EFP: Epistemic Forward Search Planners in Multi-Agent Domains
Keywords:Epistemic Planning, Epistemic Planning Graph, Epistemic Forward Planner
This paper presents two prototypical epistemic forward planners, called EFP and PG-EFP, for generating plans in multi-agent environments. These planners differ from recently developed epistemic planners in that they can deal with unlimited nested beliefs, common knowledge, and capable of generating plans with both knowledge and belief goals. EFP is simply a breadth first search planner while PG-EFP is a heuristic search based system. To generate heuristics in PG-EFP, the paper introduces the notion of an epistemic planning graph. The paper includes an evaluation of the planners using benchmarks collected from the literature and discusses the issues that affect their scalability and efficiency, thus identifies potentially directions for future work. It also includes experimental evaluation that proves the usefulness of epistemic planning graphs.