Anticipatory On-Line Planning


  • Ethan Burns University of New Hampshire
  • J. Benton Graduate Student, Arizona State University
  • Wheeler Ruml University of New Hampshire
  • Sungwook Yoon Palo Alto Research Center
  • Minh Do NASA Ames Research Center



We consider the problem of on-line continual planning, in whichadditional goals may arrive while plans for previous goals are stillexecuting and plan quality depends on how quickly goals are achieved.This is a challenging problem even in domains with deterministicactions. One common and straightforward approach is reactive planning,in which plans are synthesized when a new goal arrives. In this paper,we adapt the technique of hindsight optimization from on-line schedulingand probabilistic planning to create an anticipatory on-line planningalgorithm. Using an estimate of the goal arrival distribution, wesample possible futures and use a deterministic planner to estimate thevalue of taking possible actions at each time step. Results in twobenchmark domains based on unmanned aerial vehicle planning andmanufacturing suggest that an anticipatory approach yields a superiorplanner that is sensitive not only to which action should be executed,but when.




How to Cite

Burns, E., Benton, J., Ruml, W., Yoon, S., & Do, M. (2012). Anticipatory On-Line Planning. Proceedings of the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling, 22(1), 333-337.