Distribution Fairness in Multiplayer AI Using Shapley Constraints


  • Robert C. Gray Drexel University
  • Jichen Zhu IT University of Copenhagen
  • Santiago Ontañón Google Research / Drexel University




Experience Management (EM), Multi-Armed Bandits(MABs), AI Fairness, Player Modeling


Experience management (EM) agents in multiplayer serious games face unique challenges and responsibilities regarding the fair treatment of players. One such challenge is the Greedy Bandit Problem that arises when using traditional Multi-Armed Bandits (MABs) as EM agents, which results in some players routinely prioritized while others may be ignored. We will show that this problem can be a cause of player non-adherence in a multiplayer serious game played by human users. To mitigate this effect, we propose a new bandit strategy, the Shapley Bandit, which enforces fairness constraints in its treatment of players based on the Shapley Value. We evaluate our approach via simulation with virtual players, finding that the Shapley Bandit can be effective in providing more uniform treatment of players while incurring only a slight cost in overall performance to a typical greedy approach. Our findings highlight the importance of fair treatment among players as a goal of multiplayer EM agents and discuss how addressing this issue may lead to more effective agent operation overall. The study contributes to the understanding of player modeling and EM in serious games and provides a promising approach for balancing fairness and engagement in multiplayer environments.




How to Cite

Gray, R. C., Zhu, J., & Ontañón, S. (2023). Distribution Fairness in Multiplayer AI Using Shapley Constraints. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, 19(1), 233-243. https://doi.org/10.1609/aiide.v19i1.27519