Loose Ends: A Mixed-Initiative Creative Interface for Playful Storytelling


  • Max Kreminski University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Melanie Dickinson Independent
  • Noah Wardrip-Fruin University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Michael Mateas University of California, Santa Cruz




Mixed-initiative Co-creativity, Mixed-initiative Creative Interfaces, Creativity Support Tools, Intelligent Narrative Technologies, Interactive Storytelling, Story Sifting, Social Simulation


We present Loose Ends, a mixed-initiative co-creative storytelling play experience in which a human player and an AI system work together to compose a story. Loose Ends specifically aims to provide computational support for managing multiple parallel plot threads and bringing these threads to satisfying conclusions—something that has proven difficult in past attempts to facilitate playful mixed-initiative storytelling. We describe the overall human-AI interaction loop in Loose Ends, including the implementation of the rules-based AI system that enables this interaction loop; discuss four examples of desirable mixed-initiative interactions that are possible in Loose Ends, but not in similar systems; and present results from a preliminary expert evaluation of Loose Ends. Altogether, we find that Loose Ends shows promise for creating a sense of coauthorship in the player while also mitigating the directionlessness reported by players of earlier systems.




How to Cite

Kreminski, M., Dickinson, M., Wardrip-Fruin, N., & Mateas, M. (2022). Loose Ends: A Mixed-Initiative Creative Interface for Playful Storytelling. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, 18(1), 120-128. https://doi.org/10.1609/aiide.v18i1.21955