Hybrid Planning with Temporally Extended Goals for Sustainable Ocean Observing
A challenge to modeling and monitoring the health of the ocean environment is that it is largely under sensed and difficult to sense remotely. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can improve observability, for example of algal bloom regions, ocean acidification, and ocean circulation. This AUV paradigm, however, requires robust operation that is cost effective and responsive to the environment. To achieve low cost we generate operational sequences automatically from science goals, and achieve robustness by reasoning about the discrete and continuous effects of actions. We introduce Kongming2, a generative planner for hybrid systems with temporally extended goals (TEGs) and temporally flexible actions. It takes as input high level goals and outputs trajectories and actions of the hybrid system, for example an AUV. Kongming2 makes two major extensions to Kongming1: planning for TEGs, and planning with temporally flexible actions. We demonstrated a proof of concept of the planner in the Atlantic ocean on Odyssey IV, an AUV designed and built by the MIT AUV Lab at Sea Grant.