Two-Stage Label Embedding via Neural Factorization Machine for Multi-Label Classification
Label embedding has been widely used as a method to exploit label dependency with dimension reduction in multilabel classification tasks. However, existing embedding methods intend to extract label correlations directly, and thus they might be easily trapped by complex label hierarchies. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel Two-Stage Label Embedding (TSLE) paradigm that involves Neural Factorization Machine (NFM) to jointly project features and labels into a latent space. In encoding phase, we introduce a Twin Encoding Network (TEN) that digs out pairwise feature and label interactions in the first stage and then efficiently learn higherorder correlations with deep neural networks (DNNs) in the second stage. After the codewords are obtained, a set of hidden layers is applied to recover the output labels in decoding phase. Moreover, we develop a novel learning model by leveraging a max margin encoding loss and a label-correlation aware decoding loss, and we adopt the mini-batch Adam to optimize our learning model. Lastly, we also provide a kernel insight to better understand our proposed TSLE. Extensive experiments on various real-world datasets demonstrate that our proposed model significantly outperforms other state-ofthe-art approaches.