Designing for Human–AI Complementarity in K-12 Education


  • Kenneth Holstein Carnegie Mellon University
  • Vincent Aleven Carnegie Mellon University



Recent work has explored how complementary strengths of humans and artificial intelligence (AI) systems might be productively combined. However, successful forms of human–AI partnership have rarely been demonstrated in real-world settings. We present the iterative design and evaluation of Lumilo, smart glasses that help teachers help their students in AI-supported classrooms by presenting real-time analytics about students’ learning, metacognition, and behavior. Results from a field study conducted in K-12 classrooms indicate that students learn more when teachers and AI tutors work together during class. We discuss implications of this research for the design of human–AI partnerships. We argue for more participatory approaches to research and design in this area, in which practitioners and other stakeholders are deeply, meaningfully involved throughout the process. Furthermore, we advocate for theory-building and for principled approaches to the study of human–AI decision-making in real-world contexts.




How to Cite

Holstein, K., & Aleven, V. (2022). Designing for Human–AI Complementarity in K-12 Education. AI Magazine, 43(2), 239-248.