On the Impossibility of Convex Inference in Human Computation


  • Nihar Shah University of California, Berkeley
  • Dengyong Zhou Microsoft Research




crowdsourcing, inference, convex, axiomatic


Human computation or crowdsourcing involves joint inference of the ground-truth-answers and the worker-abilities by optimizing an objective function, for instance, by maximizing the data likelihood based on an assumed underlying model. A variety of methods have been proposed in the literature to address this inference problem. As far as we know, none of the objective functions in existing methods is convex. In machine learning and applied statistics, a convex function such as the objective function of support vector machines (SVMs) is generally preferred, since it can leverage the high-performance algorithms and rigorous guarantees established in the extensive literature on convex optimization. One may thus wonder if there exists a meaningful convex objective function for the inference problem in human computation. In this paper, we investigate this convexity issue for human computation. We take an axiomatic approach by formulating a set of axioms that impose two mild and natural assumptions on the objective function for the inference. Under these axioms, we show that it is unfortunately impossible to ensure convexity of the inference problem. On the other hand, we show that interestingly, in the absence of a requirement to model "spammers", one can construct reasonable objective functions for crowdsourcing that guarantee convex inference.




How to Cite

Shah, N., & Zhou, D. (2015). On the Impossibility of Convex Inference in Human Computation. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v29i1.9336



AAAI Technical Track: Human-Computation and Crowd Sourcing