Aggregating Electric Cars to Sustainable Virtual Power Plants: The Value of Flexibility in Future Electricity Markets
Keywords:electric vehicles, virtual power plants, renwable energy, sustainability, agents
Electric vehicles will play a crucial role in balancing the future electrical grid, which is complicated by many intermittent renewable energy sources. We developed an algorithm that determines for a fleet of electric vehicles, which EV at what price and location to commit to the operating reserve market to either absorb excess capacity or provide electricity during shortages (vehicle-2-grid). The algorithm takes the value of immobility into account by using carsharing fees as a reference point. A virtual power plant autonomously replaces cars that are committed to the operating reserves and are then rented out, with other idle cars to pool the risks of uncertainty. We validate our model with data from a free float carsharing fleet of 500 electric vehicles. An analysis of expected future developments (2015, 2018, and 2022) in operating reserve demand and battery costs yields that the gross profits for a carsharing operator increase between 7-12% with a negligible decrease in car availability (<0.01%).