The Complexity of Reasoning with FODD and GFODD


  • Benjamin Hescott Tufts University
  • Roni Khardon Tufts University



Complexity Analysis, polynomial Hierarchy, Knowledge Representation


Recent work introduced Generalized First Order Decision Diagrams (GFODD) as a knowledge representation that is useful in mechanizing decision theoretic planning in relational domains. GFODDs generalize function-free first order logic and include numerical values and numerical generalizations of existential and universal quantification. Previous work presented heuristic inference algorithms for GFODDs. In this paper, we study the complexity of the evaluation problem, the satiability problem, and the equivalence problem for GFODDs under the assumption that the size of the intended model is given with the problem, a restriction that guarantees decidability. Our results provide a complete characterization. The same characterization applies to the corresponding restriction of problems in first order logic, giving an interesting new avenue for efficient inference when the number of objects is bounded. Our results show that for Σk formulas, and for corresponding GFODDs, evaluation and satisfiability are Σkp complete, and equivalence is Πk+1p complete. For Πk formulas evaluation is Πkp complete, satisfiability is one level higher and is Σk+1p complete, and equivalence is Πk+1p complete.




How to Cite

Hescott, B., & Khardon, R. (2014). The Complexity of Reasoning with FODD and GFODD. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 28(1).



AAAI Technical Track: Knowledge Representation and Reasoning