Restraining Bolts for Reinforcement Learning Agents


  • Giuseppe De Giacomo Universit`a di Roma “La Sapienza”
  • Luca Iocchi Universit`a di Roma “La Sapienza”
  • Marco Favorito Universit`a di Roma “La Sapienza”
  • Fabio Patrizi Universit`a di Roma “La Sapienza”



In this work we have investigated the concept of “restraining bolt”, inspired by Science Fiction. We have two distinct sets of features extracted from the world, one by the agent and one by the authority imposing some restraining specifications on the behaviour of the agent (the “restraining bolt”). The two sets of features and, hence the model of the world attainable from them, are apparently unrelated since of interest to independent parties. However they both account for (aspects of) the same world. We have considered the case in which the agent is a reinforcement learning agent on a set of low-level (subsymbolic) features, while the restraining bolt is specified logically using linear time logic on finite traces f/f over a set of high-level symbolic features. We show formally, and illustrate with examples, that, under general circumstances, the agent can learn while shaping its goals to suitably conform (as much as possible) to the restraining bolt specifications.1




How to Cite

De Giacomo, G., Iocchi, L., Favorito, M., & Patrizi, F. (2020). Restraining Bolts for Reinforcement Learning Agents. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 34(09), 13659-13662.