REST: Performance Improvement of a Black Box Model via RL-Based Spatial Transformation
In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have become a highly active area of research, and shown remarkable achievements on a variety of computer vision tasks. DNNs, however, are known to often make overconfident yet incorrect predictions on out-of-distribution samples, which can be a major obstacle to real-world deployments because the training dataset is always limited compared to diverse real-world samples. Thus, it is fundamental to provide guarantees of robustness to the distribution shift between training and test time when we construct DNN models in practice. Moreover, in many cases, the deep learning models are deployed as black boxes and the performance has been already optimized for a training dataset, thus changing the black box itself can lead to performance degradation. We here study the robustness to the geometric transformations in a specific condition where the black-box image classifier is given. We propose an additional learner, REinforcement Spatial Transform learner (REST), that transforms the warped input data into samples regarded as in-distribution by the black-box models. Our work aims to improve the robustness by adding a REST module in front of any black boxes and training only the REST module without retraining the original black box model in an end-to-end manner, i.e. we try to convert the real-world data into training distribution which the performance of the black-box model is best suited for. We use a confidence score that is obtained from the black-box model to determine whether the transformed input is drawn from in-distribution. We empirically show that our method has an advantage in generalization to geometric transformations and sample efficiency.