Deep Generative Probabilistic Graph Neural Networks for Scene Graph Generation
We propose a new algorithm, called Deep Generative Probabilistic Graph Neural Networks (DG-PGNN), to generate a scene graph for an image. The input to DG-PGNN is an image, together with a set of region-grounded captions and object bounding-box proposals for the image. To generate the scene graph, DG-PGNN constructs and updates a new model, called a Probabilistic Graph Network (PGN). A PGN can be thought of as a scene graph with uncertainty: it represents each node and each edge by a CNN feature vector and defines a probability mass function (PMF) for node-type (object category) of each node and edge-type (predicate class) of each edge. The DG-PGNN sequentially adds a new node to the current PGN by learning the optimal ordering in a Deep Q-learning framework, where states are partial PGNs, actions choose a new node, and rewards are defined based on the ground-truth. After adding a node, DG-PGNN uses message passing to update the feature vectors of the current PGN by leveraging contextual relationship information, object co-occurrences, and language priors from captions. The updated features are then used to fine-tune the PMFs. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art results on the Visual Genome dataset for scene graph generation. We also show that the scene graphs constructed by DG-PGNN improve performance on the visual question answering task, for questions that need reasoning about objects and their interactions in the scene context.