Expressing Objects Just Like Words: Recurrent Visual Embedding for Image-Text Matching
Existing image-text matching approaches typically infer the similarity of an image-text pair by capturing and aggregating the affinities between the text and each independent object of the image. However, they ignore the connections between the objects that are semantically related. These objects may collectively determine whether the image corresponds to a text or not. To address this problem, we propose a Dual Path Recurrent Neural Network (DP-RNN) which processes images and sentences symmetrically by recurrent neural networks (RNN). In particular, given an input image-text pair, our model reorders the image objects based on the positions of their most related words in the text. In the same way as extracting the hidden features from word embeddings, the model leverages RNN to extract high-level object features from the reordered object inputs. We validate that the high-level object features contain useful joint information of semantically related objects, which benefit the retrieval task. To compute the image-text similarity, we incorporate a Multi-attention Cross Matching Model into DP-RNN. It aggregates the affinity between objects and words with cross-modality guided attention and self-attention. Our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on Flickr30K dataset and competitive performance on MS-COCO dataset. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.