Revisiting Online Quantum State Learning
In this paper, we study the online quantum state learning problem which is recently proposed by Aaronson et al. (2018). In this problem, the learning algorithm sequentially predicts quantum states based on observed measurements and losses and the goal is to minimize the regret. In the previous work, the existing algorithms may output mixed quantum states. However, in many scenarios, the prediction of a pure quantum state is required. In this paper, we first propose a Follow-the-Perturbed-Leader (FTPL) algorithm that can guarantee to predict pure quantum states. Theoretical analysis shows that our algorithm can achieve an O(√T) expected regret under some reasonable settings. In the case that the pure state prediction is not mandatory, we propose another deterministic learning algorithm which is simpler and more efficient. The algorithm is based on the online gradient descent (OGD) method and can also achieve an O(√T) regret bound. The main technical contribution of this result is an algorithm of projecting an arbitrary Hermitian matrix onto the set of density matrices with respect to the Frobenius norm. We think this subroutine is of independent interest and can be widely used in many other problems in the quantum computing area. In addition to the theoretical analysis, we evaluate the algorithms with a series of simulation experiments. The experimental results show that our FTPL method and OGD method outperform the existing RFTL approach proposed by Aaronson et al. (2018) in almost all settings. In the implementation of the RFTL approach, we give a closed-form solution to the algorithm. This provides an efficient, accurate, and completely executable solution to the RFTL method.