Probabilistic Inference for Predicate Constraint Satisfaction
In this paper, we present a novel constraint solving method for a class of predicate Constraint Satisfaction Problems (pCSP) where each constraint is represented by an arbitrary clause of first-order predicate logic over predicate variables. The class of pCSP properly subsumes the well-studied class of Constrained Horn Clauses (CHCs) where each constraint is restricted to a Horn clause. The class of CHCs has been widely applied to verification of linear-time safety properties of programs in different paradigms. In this paper, we show that pCSP further widens the applicability to verification of branching-time safety properties of programs that exhibit finitely-branching non-determinism. Solving pCSP (and CHCs) however is challenging because the search space of solutions is often very large (or unbounded), high-dimensional, and non-smooth. To address these challenges, our method naturally combines techniques studied separately in different literatures: counterexample guided inductive synthesis (CEGIS) and probabilistic inference in graphical models. We have implemented the presented method and obtained promising results on existing benchmarks as well as new ones that are beyond the scope of existing CHC solvers.