MRI Reconstruction with Interpretable Pixel-Wise Operations Using Reinforcement Learning
Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) is a technique aimed at accelerating the data acquisition of MRI. While down-sampling in k-space proportionally reduces the data acquisition time, it results in images corrupted by aliasing artifacts and blur. To reconstruct images from the down-sampled k-space, recent deep-learning based methods have shown better performance compared with classical optimization-based CS-MRI methods. However, they usually use deep neural networks as a black-box, which directly maps the corrupted images to the target images from fully-sampled k-space data. This lack of transparency may impede practical usage of such methods. In this work, we propose a deep reinforcement learning based method to reconstruct the corrupted images with meaningful pixel-wise operations (e.g. edge enhancing filters), so that the reconstruction process is transparent to users. Specifically, MRI reconstruction is formulated as Markov Decision Process with discrete actions and continuous action parameters. We conduct experiments on MICCAI dataset of brain tissues and fastMRI dataset of knee images. Our proposed method performs favorably against previous approaches. Our trained model learns to select pixel-wise operations that correspond to the anatomical structures in the MR images. This makes the reconstruction process more interpretable, which would be helpful for further medical analysis.