Adversarial Binary Collaborative Filtering for Implicit Feedback
Fast item recommendation based on implicit feedback is vital in practical scenarios due to data-abundance, but challenging because of the lack of negative samples and the large number of recommended items. Recent adversarial methods unifying generative and discriminative models are promising, since the generative model, as a negative sampler, gradually improves as iteration continues. However, binary-valued generative model is still unexplored within the min-max framework, but important for accelerating item recommendation. Optimizing binary-valued models is difficult due to non-smooth and nondifferentiable. To this end, we propose two novel methods to relax the binarization based on the error function and Gumbel trick so that the generative model can be optimized by many popular solvers, such as SGD and ADMM. The binary-valued generative model is then evaluated within the min-max framework on four real-world datasets and shown its superiority to competing hashing-based recommendation algorithms. In addition, our proposed framework can approximate discrete variables precisely and be applied to solve other discrete optimization problems.