Unsupervised Domain Adaptation by Matching Distributions Based on the Maximum Mean Discrepancy via Unilateral Transformations
We propose a simple yet effective method for unsupervised domain adaptation. When training and test distributions are different, standard supervised learning methods perform poorly. Semi-supervised domain adaptation methods have been developed for the case where labeled data in the target domain are available. However, the target data are often unlabeled in practice. Therefore, unsupervised domain adaptation, which does not require labels for target data, is receiving a lot of attention. The proposed method minimizes the discrepancy between the source and target distributions of input features by transforming the feature space of the source domain. Since such unilateral transformations transfer knowledge in the source domain to the target one without reducing dimensionality, the proposed method can effectively perform domain adaptation without losing information to be transfered. With the proposed method, it is assumed that the transformed features and the original features differ by a small residual to preserve the relationship between features and labels. This transformation is learned by aligning the higher-order moments of the source and target feature distributions based on the maximum mean discrepancy, which enables to compare two distributions without density estimation. Once the transformation is found, we learn supervised models by using the transformed source data and their labels. We use two real-world datasets to demonstrate experimentally that the proposed method achieves better classification performance than existing methods for unsupervised domain adaptation.