Online Learning from Data Streams with Varying Feature Spaces
We study the problem of online learning with varying feature spaces. The problem is challenging because, unlike traditional online learning problems, varying feature spaces can introduce new features or stop having some features without following a pattern. Other existing methods such as online streaming feature selection (Wu et al. 2013), online learning from trapezoidal data streams (Zhang et al. 2016), and learning with feature evolvable streams (Hou, Zhang, and Zhou 2017) are not capable to learn from arbitrarily varying feature spaces because they make assumptions about the feature space dynamics. In this paper, we propose a novel online learning algorithm OLVF to learn from data with arbitrarily varying feature spaces. The OLVF algorithm learns to classify the feature spaces and the instances from feature spaces simultaneously. To classify an instance, the algorithm dynamically projects the instance classifier and the training instance onto their shared feature subspace. The feature space classifier predicts the projection confidences for a given feature space. The instance classifier will be updated by following the empirical risk minimization principle and the strength of the constraints will be scaled by the projection confidences. Afterwards, a feature sparsity method is applied to reduce the model complexity. Experiments on 10 datasets with varying feature spaces have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed OLVF algorithm. Moreover, experiments with trapezoidal data streams on the same datasets have been conducted to show that OLVF performs better than the state-of-the-art learning algorithm (Zhang et al. 2016).