A Unified Framework for Planning in Adversarial and Cooperative Environments
Users of AI systems may rely upon them to produce plans for achieving desired objectives. Such AI systems should be able to compute obfuscated plans whose execution in adversarial situations protects privacy, as well as legible plans which are easy for team members to understand in cooperative situations. We develop a unified framework that addresses these dual problems by computing plans with a desired level of comprehensibility from the point of view of a partially informed observer. For adversarial settings, our approach produces obfuscated plans with observations that are consistent with at least k goals from a set of decoy goals. By slightly varying our framework, we present an approach for producing legible plans in cooperative settings such that the observation sequence projected by the plan is consistent with at most j goals from a set of confounding goals. In addition, we show how the observability of the observer can be controlled to either obfuscate or convey the actions in a plan when the goal is known to the observer. We present theoretical results on the complexity analysis of our approach. We also present an empirical evaluation to show the feasibility and usefulness of our approaches using IPC domains.