Hidden Follower Detection: How Is the Gaze-Spacing Pattern Embodied in Frequency Domain?


  • Shu Li Xidian University
  • Ruimin Hu Xidian Unversity
  • Suhui Li Xidian University
  • Liang Liao Nanyang Technological University




CMS: Social Cognition And Interaction, CV: Object Detection & Categorization, DMKM: Mining of Spatial, Temporal or Spatio-Temporal Data


Spatiotemporal social behavior analysis is a technique that studies the social behavior patterns of objects and estimates their risks based on their trajectories. In social public scenarios such as train stations, hidden following behavior has become one of the most challenging issues due to its probability of evolving into violent events, which is more than 25%. In recent years, research on hidden following detection (HFD) has focused on differences in time series between hidden followers and normal pedestrians under two temporal characteristics: gaze and spatial distance. However, the time-domain representation for time series is irreversible and usually causes the loss of critical information. In this paper, we deeply study the expression efficiency of time/frequency domain features of time series, by exploring the recovery mechanism of features to source time series, we establish a fidelity estimation method for feature expression and a selection model for frequency-domain features based on the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR). Experimental results demonstrate the feature fidelity of time series and HFD performance are positively correlated, and the fidelity of frequency-domain features and HFD performance are significantly better than the time-domain features. On both real and simulated datasets, the accuracy of the proposed method is increased by 3%, and the gaze-only module is improved by 10%. Related research has explored new methods for optimal feature selection based on fidelity, new patterns for efficient feature expression of hidden following behavior, and the mechanism of multimodal collaborative identification.



How to Cite

Li, S., Hu, R., Li, S., & Liao, L. (2024). Hidden Follower Detection: How Is the Gaze-Spacing Pattern Embodied in Frequency Domain?. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 38(1), 538-546. https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v38i1.27809



AAAI Technical Track on Cognitive Modeling & Cognitive Systems