A Machine with Short-Term, Episodic, and Semantic Memory Systems


  • Taewoon Kim Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  • Michael Cochez Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  • Vincent Francois-Lavet Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  • Mark Neerincx Technische Universiteit Delft
  • Piek Vossen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam




CMS: Memory Storage and Retrieval, ML: Lifelong and Continual Learning, ML: Bio-Inspired Learning, KRR: Common-Sense Reasoning, ML: Applications, KRR: Applications, CMS: Agent & Cognitive Architectures, CMS: Brain Modeling, CMS: Adaptive Behavior, ML: Reinforcement Learning Algorithms


Inspired by the cognitive science theory of the explicit human memory systems, we have modeled an agent with short-term, episodic, and semantic memory systems, each of which is modeled with a knowledge graph. To evaluate this system and analyze the behavior of this agent, we designed and released our own reinforcement learning agent environment, “the Room”, where an agent has to learn how to encode, store, and retrieve memories to maximize its return by answering questions. We show that our deep Q-learning based agent successfully learns whether a short-term memory should be forgotten, or rather be stored in the episodic or semantic memory systems. Our experiments indicate that an agent with human-like memory systems can outperform an agent without this memory structure in the environment.




How to Cite

Kim, T., Cochez, M., Francois-Lavet, V., Neerincx, M., & Vossen, P. (2023). A Machine with Short-Term, Episodic, and Semantic Memory Systems. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 37(1), 48-56. https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v37i1.25075



AAAI Technical Track on Cognitive Modeling & Cognitive Systems