Automatic Generation of Flexible Plans via Diverse Temporal Planning
Keywords:Cognitive Robotics, Planning and Decision Support for Human-Machine Teams, Deterministic Planning, Temporal Planning
AbstractRobots operating in the real world must deal with uncertainty, be it due to working with humans who are unpredictable, or simply because they must operate in a dynamic environment. Ignoring the uncertainty is dangerous, while accounting for all possible outcomes is often computationally infeasible. One approach, which lies between ignoring the uncertainty completely and addressing it completely is using flexible plans with choice, formulated as Temporal Planning Networks (TPNs). This method has been successfully demonstrated to work in human-robot teamwork using the Pike executive, an online executive that unifies intent recognition and plan adaptation. However, one of the main challenges to using Pike is the need to manually specify the TPN. In this paper, we address this challenge by describing a technique for automatically synthesizing a TPN which covers multiple possible executions for a given temporal planning problem specified in PDDL 2.1. Our approach starts by using a diverse planner to generate multiple plans, and then merges them into a single TPN. As there were no available diverse planners for temporal planning, we first present a novel method for adapting an existing diverse planning method, based on top-k planning, to the temporal setting. We then describe how merging diverse plans into a single TPN is performed using constraint optimization. Finally, an empirical evaluation on a set of IPC benchmarks shows that our approach scales well, and generates TPNs which can generalize the set of plans they are generated from.
How to Cite
Amitai, Y., Taitler, A., & Karpas, E. (2021). Automatic Generation of Flexible Plans via Diverse Temporal Planning. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 35(7), 6049-6057. https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v35i7.16754
AAAI Technical Track on Intelligent Robots