Complexity and Algorithms for Exploiting Quantal Opponents in Large Two-Player Games


  • David Milec Czech Technical University
  • Jakub Černý Nanyang Technological University
  • Viliam Lisý Czech Technical University
  • Bo An Nanyang Technological University



Opponent Modeling, Imperfect Information


Solution concepts of traditional game theory assume entirely rational players; therefore, their ability to exploit subrational opponents is limited. One type of subrationality that describes human behavior well is the quantal response. While there exist algorithms for computing solutions against quantal opponents, they either do not scale or may provide strategies that are even worse than the entirely-rational Nash strategies. This paper aims to analyze and propose scalable algorithms for computing effective and robust strategies against a quantal opponent in normal-form and extensive-form games. Our contributions are: (1) we define two different solution concepts related to exploiting quantal opponents and analyze their properties; (2) we prove that computing these solutions is computationally hard; (3) therefore, we evaluate several heuristic approximations based on scalable counterfactual regret minimization (CFR); and (4) we identify a CFR variant that exploits the bounded opponents better than the previously used variants while being less exploitable by the worst-case perfectly-rational opponent.




How to Cite

Milec, D., Černý, J., Lisý, V., & An, B. (2021). Complexity and Algorithms for Exploiting Quantal Opponents in Large Two-Player Games. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 35(6), 5575-5583.



AAAI Technical Track on Game Theory and Economic Paradigms