Turing-like Experiment in a Cyber Defense Game


  • Yinuo Du Carnegie Mellon University
  • Baptiste Prebot Carnegie Mellon University
  • Cleotilde Gonzalez Carnegie Mellon University




Cognitive Model, Interactive Game, Autonomous Cyber Defense


During the past decade, researchers of behavioral cyber security have created cognitive agents that are able to learn and make decisions in dynamic environments in ways that assimilate human decision processes. However, many of these efforts have been limited to simple detection tasks and represent basic cognitive functions rather than a whole set of cognitive capabilities required in dynamic cyber defense scenarios. Our current work aims at advancing the development of cognitive agents that learn and make defense-dynamic decisions during cyber attacks by intelligent attack agents. We also aim to evaluate the capability of these cognitive models in ``Turing-like'' experiments, comparing the decisions and performance of these agents against human cyber defenders. In this paper, we present an initial demonstration of a cognitive model of the defender that relies on a cognitive theory of dynamic decision-making, Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT); we also demonstrate the execution of the same defense task by human defenders. We rely on OpenAI Gym and CybORG and adapt an existing CAGE scenario to generate a simulation experiment using an IBL defender. We also offer a new Interactive Defense Game (IDG), where \textit{human} defenders can perform the same CAGE scenario simulated with the IBL model. Our results suggest that the IBL model makes decisions against two intelligent attack agents that are similar to those observed in a subsequent human experiment. We conclude with a description of the cognitive foundations required to build autonomous intelligent cyber defense agents that can collaborate with humans in autonomous cyber defense teams.






Symposium on Human-Like Learning