Artificial Intelligence’s Grand Challenges: Past, Present, and Future


  • Ganesh Mani
  • Frank Chen
  • Steve Cross
  • Thomas Kalil
  • Vanathi Gopalakrishnan
  • Francesca Rossi
  • Ken Stanley


Innovative, bold initiatives that capture the imagination of researchers and system builders are often required to spur a field of science or technology forward. A vision for the future of artificial intelligence was laid out by Turing Award winner Raj Reddy in his 1988 Presidential address to the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. It is time to provide an accounting of the progress that has been made in the field, over the last three decades, toward the challenge goals. While some tasks such as the world-champion chess machine were accomplished in short order, many others, such as self-replicating systems, require more focus and breakthroughs for completion. A new set of challenges for the current decade is also proposed, spanning the health, wealth, and wisdom spheres.




How to Cite

Mani, G., Chen, F., Cross, S. ., Kalil, T. ., Gopalakrishnan, V. ., Rossi, F., & Stanley, K. (2021). Artificial Intelligence’s Grand Challenges: Past, Present, and Future. AI Magazine, 42(1), 61-75. Retrieved from