Resilient Logic Programs: Answer Set Programs Challenged by Ontologies
We introduce resilient logic programs (RLPs) that couple a non-monotonic logic program and a first-order (FO) theory or description logic (DL) ontology. Unlike previous hybrid languages, where the interaction between the program and the theory is limited to consistency or query entailment tests, in RLPs answer sets must be ‘resilient’ to the models of the theory, allowing non-output predicates of the program to respond differently to different models. RLPs can elegantly express ∃∀∃-QBFs, disjunctive ASP, and configuration problems under incompleteness of information. RLPs are decidable when a couple of natural assumptions are made: (i) satisfiability of FO theories in the presence of closed predicates is decidable, and (ii) rules are safe in the style of the well-known DL-safeness. We further show that a large fragment of such RLPs can be translated into standard (disjunctive) ASP, for which efficient implementations exist. For RLPs with theories expressed in DLs, we use a novel relaxation of safeness that safeguards rules via predicates whose extensions can be inferred to have a finite bound. We present several complexity results for the case where ontologies are written in some standard DLs.